15-387/86-375/675 Computational Perception
Carnegie Mellon University
The perceptual capabilities of even the simplest biological organisms are far beyond what we can achieve with machines. Whether you look at sensitivity, robustness, adaptability and generalizability, perception in biology just works, and works in complex, ever changing environments, and can make inference on the most subtle sensory patterns. Is it the neural hardware? Does the brain use a fundamentally different algorithm? What can we learn from biological systems and human perception?
In this course, we will study the biological and psychological data of biological perceptual systems, mostly the visual system, in depth, and then apply computational thinking to investigate the principles and mechanisms underlying natural perception.
You will learn how to reason scientifically and computationally about problems and issues in perception, how to extract the essential computational properties of those abstract ideas, and finally how to convert these into explicit mathematical models and computational algorithms. The course is targeted to both neuroscience and psychology students who are interested in learning computational thinking, as well as computer science and engineering students who are interested in learning more about the neural and computational basis of perception. Prerequisites: First year college calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, basic probability theory and statistical inference, and programming experience (Matlab) are desirable.
|Instructors ||Office or zoom (Office hours) ||Email (Phone)
|Tai Sing Lee (Professor) || Friday 9-10 a.m. Class zoom link ||firstname.lastname@example.org
|Tianqin Li (TA) || Monday 5:30-6:30 pm and Tuesday 8:00-9:00 p.m. Class zoom link || email@example.com
- Class location and time: WEH 5310 or Zoom (link announced on CANVAS), Monday/Wednesday 1:30 p.m - 2:50 p.m.
- Class recitation and journal club: zoom only: 1:30 p.m - 2:50 p.m.
- Website: http://www.cnbc.cmu.edu/~tai/cp21.html (course info and readings )
- Canvas: Lecture materials and Information would be on Canvas.
- Handouts on Canvas .
- Frisby and Stone Seeing: The computational approach to biological vision . MIT Press, 2010 (recommended).
- Supplementary Simon Prince Computer Vision: Models, Learning, and Inference . Cambridge University Press , 2012. Downloadable at: http://www.computervisionmodels.com. More relevant to graduate students.
- If in person, refrain from using laptop and cell phones. If on zoom, please turn on your video.
Grading Scheme 15-387
|Evaluation||Grade Points |
|Assignments || 65 |
|Midterm ||10 |
|Final Exam ||15 |
|Class Participation ||10 |
- Total points: 100
- Grading scheme: A: > 88, B: > 75. C: > 65. D > 50.
Grading Scheme 86-375
|Evaluation|| Points |
|Assignments || 39 |
|Midterm ||10 |
|Final Exam ||15 |
|Flex Requirement || 26 |
|Class participation (10) || 10 |
- Total credit for 86-375: 100
39 points out of top three of five problem sets.
- Flex Requirement: problem set (13), a term project (13) OR term paper (13) OR Journal Club (13)
- Grading scheme: A: > 88, B: > 75. C: > 65. D > 50
Grading Scheme 86-675
|Assignments || 65 |
|Midterm || 10 |
|Final Exam * || 15 |
|Journal Club * || 3 Presentations |
|Term Project * || See below. |
|Class participation || 10 |
- Total credit for 86-675: 100
- Journal Club at least 10 times attendance, 2-3 presentations.
- Term project can be used to replace one or two problem sets, depending on the scale of the project.
- Grading scheme: A+ top 2 students in the class. A > 88, B: > 75. C: > 65
- There will be 5 homework assignments involving Matlab and/or Python and/or Pytorch. The focus is on performing
experiments on existing codes rather than coding algorithms from scratch.
- Each student will have 7 days grace period for late homework. This grace period
can be used for one or multiple assignments. Use it wisely and
you cannot ask for more.
CANVAS or gradescope submission after the starting of class time of due day is considered late by one day.
- Term project option is an available for 86-375 and 675 students
counts for 25 and 26 points. 15-387 students can do a term project to replace one of their assignment (max: 13 points).
A term project must involve some computational experiments, using either downloadable softwares or programs you develop.
All the codes should be documented and archived in github and submitted together with a term paper
(6-8 pages) materials in a different pdf/doc file and/or matlab zip files.
Term project should take about 30 hours
to complete. Undergraduate student should work on his/her own project.
Graduate students can work on team on a larger scale project but need to be approved in advance.
Project proposal is due by midterm.
Students are encouraged to discuss project ideas with professor
from the very beginning of the semester.
- Term paper option is an available for 86-375 students and
counts for a max of 26 points. It should be an extensive in-depth review of a particular topic to be approved by
the professor before midterm. The paper will be about 8 pages in NeuRIPS format.
Paper proposal is due by midterm. The student is required to give a powerpoint presentation in person or
on zoom at the end of the semester.
- Journal club option is an available option for 86-675 students and count
for 25/26 points toward the total grade.
Each student is expected to present three to four times during the course of the semester and participate in 90% of the journal club discussion.
- There will be a midterm (10 points) and a final exam (15 points) to test materials covered
in the lectures and homework assignments.
- There will be 12 in-class exercises, each worths 1 point. Full credit: 10 points.
| ||SENSORY CODING || || || |
|M 8/30 ||1. Introduction || || |
|W 9/1 ||2. Computational Approach || || |
|M 9/6 ||Label Day (no class) || || |
|W 9/8 ||3. Retina ||
|| Homework 1 |
|M 9/13 ||4. Frequency Analysis || || |
|W 9/15 ||5. Neural Network || || |
|M 9/20 ||6. Optics, Lightness and Color || ||   |
|W 9/22 ||7. Retinex and Intrinsic Images || || Homework 2 |
| ||PERCEPTUAL INFERENCE || || |
|M 9/27 ||8. Lightness perception || || |
|W 9/29 ||9. Dimensional reduction || || |
|M 10/4 ||10. Source Separation || || Mid-Course Evaluation |
|W 10/6 ||11. Belief Net || || Homework 3; |
|M 10/11 ||12. Inference: Depth || || |
|W 10/13 || Midterm || || |
|Th 10/14 || Mid-semester break || || |
|M 10/18 ||13. Inference: Motion || || Mid-term Grade. Project Proposal due |
|W 10/20 ||14. Perceptual Organization || || |
|M 10/25 || 15. Texture Perception || || |
|W 10/27 ||16. Content and Style || || Homework 4 |
|M 11/1 || 17. Visual Hierarchy || || |
|W 11/3 || 18. Analysis by Synthesis || || |
|F 11/5 || No Journal Club: Community Engagement || || |
| ||OBJECT AND SCENES || || |
|M 11/8 || 19. Predictive coding || || |
|W 11/10 ||20. Self-supervised learning || || Homework 5 |
|M 11/15 ||21. Compositional theory || || |
|W 11/17 ||22. Object and Parts || || |
|M 11/22 || 23. Attention || || |
|W 11/24 ||Thanksgiving break || || |
|M 11/29 ||24. Awareness || || HW 5 due |
|W 12/1 ||25. Review || || |
|F 12/3 ||Last day of Class ||   || Paper Presentation |
|X 12/18 ||Final Exam and Presentations || || |
Week 1 (Lectures 1 and 2) Computational Philosophy
Week 2,3 (Lectures 3, 4, 5) Retina and Neural Network
- Visual perception starts with the eyes and the photoreceptors. However,
there is already sophisticated complications in the
retina. We will read the classic and the modern papers on retinal processing, cover some basic background on
frequency analysis, as well as the current computaitonal approach (via deep learning) for understanding
the retinal processing. We will do a problem set on retinal processing, and its relationship to some visual illusion
For journal club, we can read some efficient coding papers by Simoncelli, Lewicki and Ganguli for understanding the representation in the retina.
Lettvin, Maturana, McCulloch and Pitt. (1959) What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain Proceedings of the IRE 1940-1959 .
Gollisch and Meister (2010) Eye Smarter than Scientists Believed:
Neural Computations in Circuits of the Retina Neuron 65: 151-164.
Maheswaranathan, Kastner, Baccus and Ganguli (218) Inferring hidden struture in multilayered neural circuits. PLOS Computaitonal Biology 14(8):e1006291
Maheswaranthan, .... Ganguli and Baccus (2018) Deep learning models reveal internal structure and diverse computations in the retina under natural scenes bioRxiv, June 8, 2018.
McIntosh, Maheswaranathan, Nayebi, Ganguli and Baccus (2016) Deep Learning Models of the Retinal Response to Natural Scenes NIPS
Perdreau, F. & Cavanagh, P. (2011). Do artists see their retinas? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5:171
Week 4 (Lecture 6,7) Lightness perception and Intrinsic Images
- Our perception of brightness (or lightness) and color is not determined what are sened by the retina, but in fact an interpretation of the ligthness and color properties of the object surfaces in the world. We will explore the classic theory of retinex as well as modern computational theory of intrinsic images for understanding lightness and color perception, culminating in a problem set on these issues. Discussion: the dress.
Adelson, Ed, (2000) Lightness Perception and Lightness Illusion The New Cognitive Neuroscience, Gazzaniga ed. MIT Press.
Land, E, (1977) The retinex theory of color vision Scientific America
Horn, B, (1974) Determininng lightness from an image Computer Graphics and Image Procwssing.
Morel JM, Petro AB, Sbert C. (2010) IEEE Trans Image Process.
Tappen, Freeman and Adelson (2005) Recovering intrinsic images from a single image IEEE PAMI.
Weeks 5 and 6 (Lecture 8,9,10,11). Source Separation and Dimensional Reduction
- Lightness perception tells us that we perceive the representations of the properties of the world that we care about. But how does a brain decide what properties we should care about and how we can learn these representations? We will explore the principles of Bayesian inference, blind source separation, efficient coding, autoencoding and
and statistics of natural scene structures to understand these issues.
Olshausen and Field (1996) Emergence of simple-cell receptive field properties by learning a sparse code for natural images Nature 381: 607-609.
Olshausen and Field (2004) Sparse coding of sensory inputs Current Opinions in Neurobiology 14:481-487.
Barlow (1954) Possible principles underying the transformation of sensory messages Sensory Communication MIT Press, p217-234.
Barlow (2001) Redundancy reduction revisited Network: Computation in Neural Systems 12: 241-253.
Torralba and Oliva
(2003) Statistics of natural image categories Network: Comptuations in Neural Systems 14: 391-412.
Hinton, GE and RR Salakhutdinov
(2006) Reducing the dimensionlity of data with Neural Networks Science 313, July 28, 504-507.
Cavanagh, P. (2005) The artist as neuroscientist. Nature, 434, 301-307.
Schmidhuber Jurgen. (1997) Low complexity art.
Schmidhuber Jurgen. (2008) Driven by Compression Progress: A simple principle explains essential aspects of subjective beauty, novelty, surprise, interestingness, attention, curiosity, creativity, art, science, music, and jokes!
Week 7 (Lectures 12-13) Perceptual inference: depth and motion
Week 8 (Lectures 14-16) Perceptual Inference: Grouping, Organization and Style
- Our visual system is not just trying to "represent" the outside world, but to make inference. Representations are created to facilitate inference. In this segment of the course, we will discuss perceptual inference in the context of texture and surface perception, extending it to the neural basis of perception of artistic style.
Bela Julez (1981) Textons, the elements of texture perception and their interaction. Nature 290. 91-97.
Lee (1995) A Bayesian framework for understanding texture segmentation in the primary visual cortex Vision Research 2643-2657.
Heeger and Bergen (1995) Pyramid-based texture analysis/synthesis SIGGRAPH 1995
Portilla and Simoncelli (2000) A parametric texture model based on joint statsitics of complex wavelet coefficients Internal journal of computer vision 40(1), 49-71.
L. A. Gatys, A. S. Ecker, and M. Bethge (2015) Texture Synthesis Using Convolutional Neural Networks NIPS 28
L. A. Gatys, A. S. Ecker, and M. Bethge (2017) Texture and art with deep neural networks Current Opinions in Neurbiology 46, 178-186.
L. A. Gatys, A. S. Ecker, and M. Bethge (2016)
Image Style Transfer Using Convolutional Neural Networks CVPR 2016
Freeman J, Simoncelli EP. (2011) Metamers of the ventral stream. Nature Neuroscience.
Bilge Sayim and Patrick Cavangah (2011) What line draws reveal about the visual brain.
Week 9 and 10. (Lecture 17-20) Analysis by Synthesis and Predictive Coding
- Early computer vision approach emphasized on analysis by synthesis. This framework can be generalized to conceptualize the recurrent interaction in the hierarchical visual system and perception as inverse graphics.
Van Essen, Anderson and Felleman (1992) Information processing in primate visual systems: an integrated approach Science 5043: 419-423.
Fellman and Van Essen ( 1991) Distributed Hierarchical Processing the the Primate Cerebral Cortex Cerebral Cortex 1-47.
Mumford, D (1992) On the computational architecture of the neocortex Biological Cybern.
Rao and Ballard (1998) Predictive coding in the visual cortex: a functional interpretation of some oextra-classical receptive field effects Nature Neuroscience
Lee and Mumford (2003) Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual system J. Optical Society of America
Lee, T.S. (2015) The Visual System's Internal Models of the World Proceedings of the IEEE Vol 103, issue 8, 1359-1378.
Lotter, Krieman and Cox (2020) A neural network trained for prediction mimics diverse features of bioloigcal neurons and perception Nature Machine intelligence
vol 2, 210-219.
Ilker Yildirim, Mario Belledonne, Winrich Freiwald, Josh Tenenbaum (2020) Efficient inverse graphics in biological face processing Sci. Adv. 2020; 6 : eaax5979 4 March 2020
T. D. Kulkarni, W. F. Whitney, P. kohli, J. Tenenbaum, Deep convolutional inverse graphics network, in Proceeding of the Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS, 2015), pp. 2539â€“2547
Kar K, Kubilius J, Schmidt K, Issa EB, DiCarlo JJ. Evidence that recurrent circuits are critical to the ventral streamâ€™s execution of core object recognition behavior. Nature Neuroscience. 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41593-019-0392-5.
Week 11 (Lecture 21, 22) Compositional Theory, Objects and Parts
Week 12 (Lecture 23, 24) Attention and Awareness
- Perception is dynamic, and is known to involve routing and attention. We will consider both biological and computational aspects of attention.
Grace Lindsay (2020) Attention in psychology, neuroscience and machine learning Frotnier Computational Neuroscience April 2020.
Luo and Maunsell (2019) Attention can be subdivided into neurobiological components corresponding to distinct behavioral effects PNAS 116(52) 26187-26194.
Eric Knudsen (2018) Fundamental components of attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience
Olshausen, Anderson and Van Essen (1995) Mutliscale dynamic routing circuit for forming size- and position-invariant object recognition J. Neuroscience 2:45-62.
Sabour, S., Frosst, N. and G. Hinton (2017) Dynamic routing between capsules NIPS
Kovacs, I., Papathomas, T., Yang, M. and Feher, A. (1996). When the brain changes its mind: Interocular grouping during
binocular rivalry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(26), pp.15508-15511.
Questions or comments:
contact Tai Sing Lee
Last modified: August 2021, Tai Sing Lee